CFCS and the ozone layer.

Alcamo, J.

Commercial airlines fly in the lower stratosphere. They have been introduced as temporary replacements for CFCs and are also greenhouse gases. In very general terms, mixing within the atmosphere is caused by differences in temperature and by pressure gradients.

Due to this catalytic cycle, one atom of Cl can destroy thousands of ozone molecules before it is passivated through reaction with NO2, methane or other substances. Use of CFCs is restricted to equipment placed into use prior to General Chemistry: A happy side-effect of the gradual ban of these products is that Earth's climate has also benefited because CFCs are also potent greenhouse gases.

Methane CH 4 , chlorofluorocarbons CFCs , nitrous oxide N 2 O and water are injected into the stratosphere through towering tropical cumulus clouds.

Ozone Depletion Information and Facts, Ozone Layer, Ozone Hole

The combination of routine measurements of ozone depletion, careful laboratory studies and mathematical modelling of ozone in the atmosphere, has demonstrated that the reactive fragments produced when chlorofluorocarbons CFCs , halons and other halogenated compounds break down in the stratosphere are responsible for the ozone loss.

A common example of deposition is 'rain out': Ozone is a highly reactive molecule that contains three oxygen atoms.

People with respiratory diseases that make their lungs more vulnerable to ozone may experience health effects earlier and at lower ozone levels than others. Protecting the Ozone Layer: Carbon tetrachloride was widely used as a raw material in many industrial uses, including the production of chlorofluorocarbons CFCs , and as a solvent. In years with a strong polar vortex, the ozone hole is seen to expand in diameter, whereas in years with a weaker polar vortex, the ozone hole is noted to shrink.

Ozone Depletion in the Antarctic Springtime.

CFCs, their replacements, and the ozone layer.

Climate ODS that release chlorine include chlorofluorocarbons chlorofluorocarbons Gases covered under the Montreal Protocol and used for refrigeration, air conditioning, packaging, insulation, solvents, or aerosol propellants. Stratospheric ozone depletion milestones. The provisions of the Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments decisions have depended on information embodied in international scientific assessments of ozone depletion that have been produced periodically since under the auspices of UNEP and WMO.

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Basic Ozone Layer Science

In fact, this warming is caused by ozone absorbing ultraviolet radiation. Related Topics: Depletion of this layer by ozone depleting substances ODS will lead to higher UVB levels, which in turn will cause increased skin cancers and cataracts and potential damage to some marine organisms, plants, and plastics. Diagram showing the effect of polar stratospheric clouds on ozone loss.

Today, over countries have ratified the treaty. Oxford University Press, Arctic Ozone.